A revolutionary freedom fighter, Subash Chandra Bose was a valiant leader who refused to bow down to Britishers during East India company’s rule over India that saw him rise to incredible powers. He created the famous slogan ‘Jai Hind and was first to address Mahatma Gandhi as ‘Father of the Nation’. Bose’s birthday commemorates his unmatched patriotism for India.
POLITICAL AFFILIATION – Indian National Congress
Notable work – “The Indian Struggle”
Founder of – Forward Bloc
How did Subhas Chandra Bose die?
A Falling-Out With Gandhi
Vocal support for Gandhi increased within the Indian National Congress, meanwhile, and, in light of this, Gandhi resumed a more commanding role in the party. When the civil disobedience movement was started in 1930, Bose was already in detention for his associations with an underground revolutionary group, the Bengal Volunteers. Nevertheless, he was elected mayor of Calcutta while in prison.
Released and then rearrested several times for his suspected role in violent acts, Bose was finally allowed to proceed to Europe after he contracted tuberculosis and was released for ill health. In enforced exile and still ill, he wrote The Indian Struggle, 1920–1934 and pleaded India’s cause with European leaders. He returned from Europe in 1936, was again taken into custody, and releases after a year.
Meanwhile, Bose became increasingly critical of Gandhi’s more conservative economics as well as his less confrontational approach toward independence. In 1938 he is elects president of the Indian National Congress and forms a national planning committee, which formulating a policy of broad industrialization.
However, this did not harmonize with Gandhian economic thought, which clung to the notion of cottage industries and benefiting from the use of the country’s own resources. Bose’s vindication came in 1939, when he defeated a Gandhian rival for reelection. Nonetheless, the “rebel president” felt bound to resign because of the lack of Gandhi’s support.
He finds the Forward Bloc, hoping to rally radical elements, but is again incarcerats in July 1940. His refusal to remain in prison at this critical period of India’s history is express in a determination to fast to death, which frightened the British government into releasing him.
Activity In Exile
In Nazi Germany Bose came under the tutelage of a newly created Special Bureau for India, guided by Adam von Trott zu Solz.
He and other Indians who had gathered in Berlin made regular broadcasts from the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio beginning in January 1942, speaking in English, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Gujarati, and Pashto.
A little more than a year after the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia, Bose left Germany, traveling by German and Japanese submarines and by plane, and arrived in May 1943 in Tokyo. On July 4 he assumed leadership of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia and proceeded, with Japanese aid and influence, to form a trained army of about 40,000 troops in Japanese-occupied Southeast Asia.
On October 21, 1943, Bose proclaimed the establishment of a provisional independent Indian government.
Reaching Indian soil on March 18, 1944, and moving into Kohima and the plains of Imphal. In a stubborn battle, the mixed Indian and Japanese forces, lacking Japanese air support, were defeates and forces to retreat; the Indian National Army nevertheless for some time succeeded in maintaining its identity as a liberation army, based in Burma and then Indochina. With the defeat of Japan, however, Bose’s fortunes ended.